Unit 1 A land of diversity
To be sure, only children experienced some things differently from those with sisters and brothers. Many feel more pressure to succeed. They also tend to look only to their parents as role models in the absence of brothers and sisters.
In India, 10-year-old Saviraj Sannded a support group for the tiny minority of only children. Among other things, the group does volunteer wornter(反对) the myth that they are not responsible. “People think we’re treated too kindly and ruined, ”says Sankpal, a computer engineering student. “But I’d like to remind them how lonely it can get. ”
Most only children, however, say they wish for sisters or brothers only when it comes to caring for aging, unhealthy parents. Britain’s David Emerson, co-author of the book, The Only Child, says that such a person bears terrible burden in having to make all the decisions alone. Emerson knows from experience: After his father died, he chose to move his elderly mother from their family home, where she was vulnerable(易受攻击的) to house breakers, to a new one with more security. “The move was quite hard on her, and she might feel that I pushed her into it, ” he says. “After all, I am left with that responsibility. ”
In the future, more and more only children will likely face similar choices. With working mothers increasing, many families are finding they simply don’t have the time, money or energy to have more than one child. As only children become common, perhaps the world will realize that the charge made against them is unjust.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that the author’s attitude towards only children is ________.
A. ironic B. objective
C. unfriendly D. unjust
【解析】选B。推理判断题。纵观全文可以看出, 作者提到了人们对独生子女的偏见, 以及他们面临的诸多问题, 最后, 作者认为, 随着独生子女的增多, 人们会对独生子女有一个公正的看法。由此可见, 作者的态度是客观的、公正的。
2. It can be inferred from the passage that only children’s parents should ________.
A. found a support group for their only children
B. do volunteer work to help their only children
C. let their only children make all the decisions alone
D. set good examples for their only children
【解析】选D。细节理解题。根据第一段最后一句“They also tend to look only to their parents as role models in the absence of brothers and sisters. ”可知, 在没有兄弟姐妹的独生子女家庭里, 父母是他们的榜样。
3. Emerson decided to move his elderly mother to a new house because he ________.
A. is the only one who cares about her
B. doesn’t want to leave her alone
C. wants to share the responsibility with her
D. is worried about her safety
【解析】选D。细节理解题。由第三段中的“where she was vulnerable to house breakers, to a new one with more security”可知。
4. The main idea of the passage is that ________.
A. only children are ruined and irresponsible
B. only children have to face many challenges
The Internet plays a big part in human life. We use it for work and entertainment. We can find new recipes on the Internet or advice on staying healthy. We can even use it to learn a new language. We use the Internet to connect with family and friends and stay in touch with issues we care about.
The list goes on and on.
As far as the Internet being a part of our lives—well, that train has left the station. That expression means there is no going back. If you prefer boating, you can say that ship has sailed.
So, there may be no going back to an Internet-free life. But can using the Internet too much be bad for our health?
It might be, say researchers.
Study results show that teens who spend at least 14 hours a week online were more likely to have high blood pressure.
High blood pressure mar heart and blood vessels work too hard. Over time, this extra strain increases your risk of a heart attack or stroke.
High blood pressure can also cause heart and kidney disease. It is also closely linked to some forms of dementia, a brain disease. Dementia is marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and a reduced ability to reason.
Let’s introduce something about the study of it.
The Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan did the study. It involved 335 young people, from 14 to 17 years old. One hundred thirty-four of the teens were described as “heavy Internet users”. Researchers found that out of these 134 teens, 26 had high blood pressure.
The researchers say the study is the first to connect heavy web use and high blood pressure. Other research has connected that heavy Internet use with health problems including anxiety, depression and obesity.
The lead researcher of the study is Andrea Cassidy-Bushrow. In a statement she said, “Using the Internet is part of our daily life but it shouldn’t consume us. ”
For the purpose of the study, she explains, teens considered heavy Internet users were online on “average 25 hours a week. ”
Ms Cassidy-Bushrow adds that it is important for teens to talar breaks from their computers or smartphones” and to do some “kind of physical activity. ”
She also suggests that parents limit their children’s use of the Internet to two hours a day, five days a week.
【文章大意】互联网如此有用并且融入我们的生活, 但过度使用它, 会导致多种健康问题。
1. The first two paragraphs mean that ________.
A. the list of the function of the Internet is too long to be endless
B. the Internet has too many uses to count
C. the number of the people in the world using the Internet is too many to count
D. the list of the uses of the Internet is being lengthened day by day
【解析】选B。细节理解题。由第一句“The Internet plays a big part in human life. ”和第二段“The list goes on and on. ”可知, B项符合题意。
2. The reason of increasing people’s risk of a heart attack or stroke is that ________.
A. they use the Internet too much
B. they pay little attention to their health
C. high blood pressure makes their heart and blood vessels work too hard
D. using the Internet too much makes their heart and blood vessels work too hard
【解析】选C。细节理解题。由第七段“High blood pressure mar heart and blood vessels work too hard. Over time, this extra strain increases your risk of a heart attack or stroke. ”高血压使得人们的心脏和血管超负荷运行。长此以往, 这种超负荷运行会增加心脏病和中风发生的风险。” 可知C项正确。
3. Which of the following may using the Internet too much contribute to besides teenagers’ high blood pressure?
A. Anxiety, depression and obesity.
B. Memory disorders, and personality changes.
C. Dementia, a brain disease.
D. A heart attack or stroke.
【解析】选A。细节理解题。根据第十一段内容可知: 科研人员说研究结果表明过度使用互联网首先导致高血压。其他研究结果表明还可导致其他健康问题, 如: 忧虑、情绪低落和肥胖。故A项正确。
Unit 3 Inventors and inventions
Nowadays a third of primary schoolchildren in China are suffering from psychological ill-health as a result of classroom stress and parental pressure, according to a study published on Tuesday.
The problem is so bad that urgent measures are needed, warns the study, led by British and Chinese researchers.
The investigation surveyed 2, 191 pupils aged 9 to 12 in nine schools in urban and rural Zhejiang, a relatively prosperous coastal province in eastern China.
Eighty-one percent of the youngsters said they worried “a lot” about exams, 63 percent feared being punished by their teachers, 44 percent had been physically bullied at least sometimes—with boys likelier to be victims than girls—and 73 percent had been physically punished by their parents.
Most of the children complained they struggled to cope with the amount of homework they were assigned.
Over one-third reported headaches or abdominal pains—psychosomatic symptoms of stress—at least once a week. The most stressed children reported incidence of aches or pains of four times a week.
The investigation, led by Therese Hesketh, a professor at University College London (UCL) Centre for International Health and Development, pointed the finger at extreme competitiveness in China’s education system, from the onset of primary school.
“The competitive and punitive educational environment leads to high levels of stress and psychosomatic symptoms, ” the authors say.
“Measures to reduce unnecessary stress on children in schools should be introduced urgently. ”
The paper appears in Archives of Disease in Childhood, a peer-reviewed journal of the British Medical Association (BMA).
The “urban” setting for the study was Hangzhou, the provincial capital of Zhejiang, while the “rural” setting was a poor county in Quzhou prefecture, in the west of the province.
The study highlights some of the complexities that, it says, explain the demands for academic excellence and intolerance of failure.
One factor is the country’s dramatic rise in prosperity, which has created “previously unheard-of possibilities for upward mobility” and in turn stoked pressures on children to do well at school.
Other reasons are China’s one-child policy and the Confucian traditions of respect for parents and elders, filial piety, obedience and discipline.
“The aspirations of many parents, who had limited educational opportunities themselves are now invested in their only children, ” it says.
Previous studies on school-related stress and its impact on health are few and generally come from Scandinavia.
A 2008 assessment among 10-to 13-year-old in Sweden found that 21 percent of boys and 30 percent of girls experienced headache, and 17 percent of boys and 28 percent of girls experienced abdominal pain at least once per week.
【文章大意】本文是一篇报告。文章讲述了中国孩子们在面对大量考试中, 所承受的精神上和身体上的压力, 以至于他们产生了很多不良现象。
1. What mainly caused schoolchildren to suffer from psychological ill-health?
A. Competitiveness in education system.
B. Classroom stress and parental pressure.
C. Physical punishment from their parents.
D. Endless homework from school teachers.
【解析】选B。细节理解题。根据文章第一段中的“as a result of classroom stress and parental pressure, according to a study published on Tuesday. ”可知B正确。
2. The underlined part “cope with” in Para. 5 most probably means ________.
A. to fit in B. to adapt to