Unit 1 Great Scientists
Animals use many tricks to hide from predators(捕食性动物)．While different，they are all visual animals.Now scientists have uncovered a fish species that uses both visual and chemical disguise(伪装)．Rohan Brooker, one of the researchers who made the discovery said that he first thought of the idea after reading about a species which takes on the smell of the plant that it eats.Thus，its predators，ants walk right over it.Since Harlequin Filefish are picky eaters that feed totally off the Acropora—a beautiful species of blue/purple coral，Brooker theorized that they too may be using a similar trick to fool their predators.
To test his theory，Brooker's team acquired some filefish from the Great Barrier Reef and divided them into two groups.For the next four weeks，one group fed on their normal diet of the Acropora coral，while the other fed on the Pocillopora coral.In order to test if there was any difference in the way they smelled，the researchers did another experiment.They found the smells from the two groups were different.But there was still a question of whether the smell was strong enough to protect the fish from their natural predators.
To test that，Brooker's team added a predatory species of cod(鳕鱼)to the mix.Sure enough，the cod that were placed in the tank containing the fish fed on the Pocillopora coral were immediately able to sense them.In contrast，the cod in the tank where the fish had been fed on their natural diet—the Acropora coral，appeared oblivious to their existence and instead spent much of their time inside the tank's caves.This confirmed the team's suspicion that the filefish have figured out how to give off the smell of the Acropora coral to avoid being detected by predators.
While the smell-based disguise had been previously observed in some species of fresh water，this study was the first to prove that the fish's diet was the source of this disguise.Though the theory has only been tested on Harlequin Filefish，Broospects that this kind of chemical disguise is fairly common among sea animals.Sure it gives a whole new meaning to the saying—“You are what you eat！”
1．The underlined word “oblivious” in Paragraph 3 may mean “________”．
2．What statement may Brooker agree to?
A．Freshwater fish all know the role of smell.
B．Sea animals use smell to cheat their enemies.
C．The smell-based disguise may work occasionally.
D．Humans are really what kind of fish they eat.
3．What is the passage mainly about?
A．A way to fight against predators.
B．A smell trick of all sea animals.
C．A fish smells like the coral.
D．Filefish in the Great Barrier Reef.
【难句分析】Though the theory has only been tested on Harlequin Filefish，Broospects that this kind of chemical disguise is fairly common among sea animals.
1．A 考查词义猜测。根据该词前面的描述及后面的“and instead spent much of their time inside the tank's caves”可知，此处为这些鳕鱼对于以the Acropora coral为食的鱼的存在看起来是不知道的。ignorant“不知道的，愚昧的”；sensitive“敏感的”；allergic“过敏的”；cautious“谨慎的”。
2．B 考查推理判断。根据最后一段第二句“Though the theory has only been tested on Harlequin Filefish，Broospects that this kind of chemical disguise is fairly common among sea animals”可知，Brooker赞同的是海洋动物通过气味来欺骗它们的敌人。根据最后一段第一句中的“While the smell-based...in some species of fresh water”可排除A；根据最后一段第二句中的“Broospects that this kind of chemical disguise is fairly common among sea animals”可排除C；根据最后一段第三句“Sure it gives a whole new meaning to the saying—‘You are what you eat！’”可知，该句中的“You”指的不是人类，故排除D。
3．A 考查主旨大意。根据第一段中的“Animals use many tricks to hide from predators(捕食性动物)”和“Brooker theorized that they too may be using a similar trick to fool their predators”可知，本文主要介绍了抵御捕食性动物的一种方法，故A项符合题意。
China will allow all couples to have two children，__1__ (give) up its decades-long one-child policy, the Communist Party of China (CPC) __2__ (announce) after a key meeting on Thursday.
The change of policy is intended to balance population development and meet the challenge of an aging population, according to a communiqué (公报)__3__ (issue) after the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Unit 2 The United Kingdom
The Scottish composer Evelyn Glennie lost nearly all her hearing as a young girl，yet went on to a very successful career in music including winning Grammy awards.When somebody asks her，“How do you hear？” She responds，“How do you hear？Is it only with your ears？” For Glennie，and for us too，listening is not only hearing，but is understanding.We need to listen to what is said and unsaid，and also how it is said.
It's important to hear what people say accurately.As Mark Twain said，“The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and the lightning bug(萤火虫)．”If you miss something or you're not sure you've heard accurately，ask the speakers.At this point you're not evaluating what they say，but just looking for accuracy and understanding.Here are some ways to get clear about what they say and don't say.Why are they saying this now，instead of sooner or later? Why are they emphasizing these points，instead of something else?
Listen to how it is said.People send signals about what they mean with their voices and body language that sometimes differ from the words they say.While going through the next points，thint someone whose real meaning you might sometimes miss.and see if any of these signals might come up.First，voices.When others speak，notice changes in their volume, pace，and tone.Second，body language.Notice gestures，eye contact，and facial expressions.Do these sync what they are saying，or do they tell a different story？Third，emotions.What is the person true feeling？Now you might not know for sure，but be considerate，open to understanding，and asghtful questions.
1．What's the writer's purpose of mentioning Evelyn Glennie?
A．To give an example of wise words.
B．To introduce a world-famous musician.
C．To help explain the meaning of listening.
D．To encourage us to fight against disability.
2．What can we learn from what Mark Twain said?
A．It is important to have a good knowledge of English words.
B．People should know words can be used in many different ways.
C．English is a very complicated language with a large vocabulary.
D．The slight difference between words may result in misunderstanding.
3．What does the underlined word “sync” probably mean?
4．Which is the best title of this passage?
A．Speak While You Listen
B．Listen Beyond Words
C．Read Between Lines
1．C 考查推理判断。根据第一段中的“For Glennie, and for us too, listening is not only hearing，but is understanding”可知，对于Glennie和“我们”来说，聆听不仅是用耳朵听而且是理解，这里说明了聆听的内涵。所以选项C正确。
2．D 考查推理判断。根据第二段中的“It's important to hear what people say accurately”和“At this point you're not evaluating what they say，but just looking for accuracy and understanding”可知，准确听懂说话者的意思很重要。因此，选项D“词语的细微差异可能导致误解”与Mark Twain所说的话意思相吻合。
3．A 考查词义猜测。画线词前的修饰词these指代前一句中的“gestures, eye contact，and facial expressions”；再根据画线词后的“what they are saying, or do they tell a different story”可推断，match与画线词意思相近。故选A。
In Britain someone who helps children cross the street __1__ (call)“lollipop person”， because their sign looks like a lollipop (棒棒糖)．
The job of a lollipop person is to walk to the middle of the road at a(n) __2__ (suit) time, holding up the sign. It is a legal __3__ (require) for traffic to stop at this command. The lollipop person will signal that it is all right to cross the road __4__ (safe). Traffic may only move once the sign has been lowered.
Generally speaking, school crossings are manned for approximately 3 hours a day or less. As a result, the work has always appealed more __5__ people seeking to supplement their income such as __6__ retired.
Lollipop people were introduced to enable policemen, __7__ had previously run crossing patrols (巡逻), to perform other duties. The earliest lollipops were red and black rectangles __8__ (say)“Stop, children crossing.”
In 2001 in Europe patrollers were given extra powers allowing them __9__ (assist) adults with crossing, too. The most recent change in the history of the School Crossing Patrol saw the word “children” __10__ (replace) with a symbol to bring Unit 3 Life in the future
You might make a disgusted face when you notice that the person waiting in their car at the red light next to you is picking their nose，but admit it，you do it too.And while it might be the natural option when there isn't a box of tissues around，it can be bad for you.The main reasons why people feel the need to pick their nose are to clear it of dried liquid，stop an itch(痒)，or just because it feels good.Boogers(鼻屎)form when dried liquid and cilium，the tiny hairs that line the nostrils(鼻孔)，trap the dust，dirt，and other things.When boogers build up in your nose，it can be uncomfortable，and sometimes just blowing them into a tissue doesn't do_the_trick.
Otolaryngologist Erich P．Voigt，MD，told Business Insider that picr nose can cause injuries and bleeding within your nostrils.That's not terribly damaging，but when the bacteria from your hands get into your body，it can cause a cold.So doctors strongly suggest not picking the nose.
If dry winter air is causing the dirty liquid to harden in your nostrils，ma want to pick，consider damping the air at home，or taking a steam shower to soften things up in there.
Children，who are most famous for having a finger in their nose，sometimes don't realize how much injury they're causing，and sometimes it can lead to nose bleeding.
So，next time you go to picr nose，thint how many bacteria are on your hands and in your boogers，and maybe reach for a tissue instead.Even if you're alone，and not waiting for the light to turn green，please，use a tissue.
1．Why do people pick their nose?
A．Because they want to disgust others.
B．Because they have the need to do it.
C．Because they have nothing else to do.
D．Because they don't have tissues around.
2．Which of the following can replace the underlined part“do the trick”in Paragraph 1?
3．Which can help people avoid a cold and flu according to the text?
A．Stopping picking the nose.
B．Using tissues regularly.
C．Taking a shower every day.
D．Keeping the air wet at home.
4．What should you do when you have to picr nose?
A．Be careful not to cause bleeding.
B．Use a tissue instead of bare fingers.
C．Wait for the light to turn red if you are driving.
D．Wash your hands and clear your fingernails.
【难句分析】Children，who are most famous for having a finger in their nose，sometimes don't realize how much injury they're causing，and sometimes it can lead to nose bleeding.
1．B 考查细节理解。根据第一段第三句“The main reasons why people feel the need to pick their nose are to clear it of dried liquid，stop an itch(痒)，or just because it feels good”可知，人们抠鼻子的原因是他们认为有必要这样做，故选B。
2．D 考查词义猜测。根据第一段最后一句中的“When boogers build up in your nose，it can be uncomfortable”可推知，鼻屎堵住鼻子的话，有时候擤鼻子并没有用。help意为“减轻，改善”，符合题意，故选D。
3．A 考查推理判断。根据第二段最后两句“That's not terribly damaging, but when the bacteria from your hands get into your body，it can cause a cold.So doctors strongly suggest not picking the nose”可推知，抠鼻子有可能引起细菌感染，让人感冒，因此医生强烈建议不要抠鼻子，故选A。