Unit 1 Cultural relics
We talt people being “colour-blind” but very few of us are.Even those who describe themselves as colour-blind are normally just colour deficient.A strongly colour-blind person will still be able to tell 20 different colours，compared to the 100 or so that normal-sighted people see.
Pingelap，a tiny island in the Pacific，is a beautiful spot but one that has a genetic trouble.It is known as Colour-blind Island because so many people who live on this remote island can only see in black and white.
Not being able to see in colour is bad enough.But one islander，Herrol，who's a fisherman，also struggles in full sunlight because all he sees is a painful burnt-out image.“I find it difficult to go outside in the sun，” he says，“because when it's sunny I cannot see to do my work.”
But if being truly colour-blind is rare，why is it that around 10% of the population of Pingelap live in a totally black and white world?
Well，we know that in 1780 the population of Pingelap was all but wiped out by a tsunami(海啸)．As few as 20 people survived，one of whom was the king.It's believed he had a genetic fault that causes colour-blindness and he passed this fault on to his many generations.
There is one advantage.Herrol can see well，really well，in the dark.So when it gets dark，Herrol and his friends get in their boats and hunt flying fish.They hang up flaming torches and the flying fish are attracted to the flames.“This type of fishing is fun，” Herrol says，“especially if we catch plenty.So even though it's hard work we enjoy it.”
1．What is Pingelap famous as?
A．A tiny island.
B．A beautiful island.
C．A mentally troubled island.
D．A colour-blind island.
2．What can we infer about Herrol?
A．He may stay at home when it's sunny.
B．He is interested in burnt-out images.
C．He likes taking photos very much.
D．He doesn't live in Pingelap any more.
3．Why are about one-tenth of people in Pingelap colour-blind?
A．Because Pingelap often suffers from tsunamis.
B．Because the king had an unlucky marriage.
C．Because the king's genetic fault played a role.
D．Because the king made a serious mistake.
4．What would be the best title for the text?
A．The island of colour-blindness.
B．The disadvantage of Herrol.
C．The history of Pingelap.
D．The advantage of colour-blindness.
【难句分析】It is known as Colour-blind Island because so many people who live on this remote island can only see in black and white.
分析：该句为复合句。句中because so many people who live on this remote island can only see in black and white为because引导的原因状语从句，其中who live on this remote island为who引导的定语从句，修饰先行词so many people。
1．D 考查细节理解。根据第二段第二句“It is known as Colour-blind Island because so many people who live on this remote island can only see in black and white”可知，Pingelap岛因被称为色盲岛而出名，故D项正确。
2．A 考查推理判断。根据第三段最后一句中的“I find it difficult to go outside in the sun...because when it's sunny I cannot see to do my work”可知，他发现在阳光下无法看东西，所以无法工作；据此可以判断，阳光充足时他可能会待在家里面，故A项正确。
3．C 考查细节理解。根据第五段最后一句“It's believed he had a genetic fault that causes colour-blindness and he passed this fault on to his many generations”可知，该岛的国王有导致色盲的基因，这是一种基因缺陷，他将这一基因传给了后代，所以岛上的很多人是色盲，故C项正确。
World Read Aloud Day is celebrated each year on the first Wednesday of March. It __1__ (start) by the LitWorld.org website in 2010 and has now reached 65 countries. The aim is to encourage people worldwide who cannot read to enjoy the benefits of a book. The website asks everyone __2__(celebrate) the day by taking a book, finding an audience, and reading out aloud. It is about taking action to show the world that the right to read and write __3__(belong) to all people.
The website asks __4__(visit) to join in the movement to reduce __5__number of illiterate (不识字的) people in the world. It is __6__ (absolute) necessary to help those who cannot read. The website says, “It's time to start by reading aloud Unit 2 The Olympic Games
“It's a big hammer to cract.” This is how one angry parent described the recent crackdown(严厉的打击) by London police on parents who drop their kids off at school by car.Yes，you read that correctly－the very mode of transportation that many American schools insist is the only safe way to deliver kids to school is now considered illegal in the UK.
The decision to fine any vehicles seen dropping off or picp kids within a particular zone of east London comes from city councilors'(议员) long-term efforts to make the area safer and less crowded.They say they've been trying for years “to encourage reasonable part in vain.Neighborhood residents complain frequently about their driveways being blocked by illegally parked cars for 15 minutes or more，often while they're trying to get to work，and the streets are long overcrowded.
Now the rules have changed.Some parents are angry.Angie is a mother who made the “big hammer” comment and says the crackdown is “way over the top”．The nearest drop-off point for her six-year-old is now a five-minute walk from the school.Others are happy with the decision，severe though it may seem.
Councilor Jason Frost said：“Traffic has been clearly reduced，and more children are now walking to school，which is a great outcome.I would rather have complaints that we are slightly inconveniencing parents than hear that a child had been seriously injured because nothing was done.”
I witness daily the chaos(混乱)created by these in-town drivers，when I walk my own kids to school.There's a parking lot crowded with vehicles and a slow-moving train of cars moving in circles，many filling the air with harmful smoke.Meanwhile，the conversations around overweight children and the importance of daily physical activities continue to stand out in schools.
1．Why is Angie opposed to the new rule?
A．She is often fined by London police.
B．She will lose her job as a school driver.
C．She has adapted to the American practice.
D．She thinks it adds inconvenience to her kid.
2．Why has the new rule been made according to Jason Frost?
A．On account of many complaints.
B．Because of students' health problem.
C．Owing to safety concern.
D．Due to air pollution.
3．What can be seen after the crackdown is carried out?
A．Less daily chaos.
B．Support from all people.
C．More overweight children.
D．Complaints from neighbors.
4．What is the main idea of the text?
A．Parents attempt to resist a school rule.
B．London police cause widespread anger.
C．American schools care more about kids' safety.
D．Different voices are heard on a new traffic policy.
【难句分析】The decision to fine any vehicles seen dropping off or picp kids within a particular zone of east London comes from city councilors'(议员)long-term efforts to make the area safer and less crowded.
分析：这是一个简单句。句中不定式短语to fine any vehicles作decision的后置定语；过去分词短语seen...London作vehicles的后置定语；dropping off or picp kids作补语，补充说明vehicles；不定式短语to make the area safer and less crowded作efforts的后置定语。
1．D 考查推理判断。根据第三段中的“The nearest drop-off point for her six-year-old is now a five-minute walk from the school”可知，对于她6岁的孩子来说，最近的下车点离学校有五分钟的步行路程，据此可推知，Angie认为不能在校门口停车给孩子带来不便。所以选项D正确。选项A的意思是“伦敦警察经常对她进行罚款”，选项B意思是“她将失去校车司机这份工作”，这两个选项的信息在文章中都没有出现，所以都是错误的；虽然文章第一段提到这种在校门口就让小孩下车的方法在美国是常见的方式，但如今在伦敦却是非法的，但是没有提到Angie已经适应了美国的这种惯例，所以选项C也是错误的。
2．C 考查细节理解。根据第二段中的“long-term efforts to make the area safer and less crowded”可知，选项C的表述“Owing to safety concern”是正确的。所以选项C正确。
3．A 考查细节理解。根据第四段中的“Traffic has been clearly reduced, and more children are now walking to school, which is a great outcome”可知，车辆已经明显减少，许多孩子正在步行上学，这是最大的结果，所以选项A正确。
Unit 3 Computers
When it's five o'clock，people leave their office.The length of the workday，for many workers，is defined by time.They leave when the clock tells them they're done.
These days，the time is everywhere：not just on clocks or watches，but on cellphones and computers.That may be a bad thing，particularly at work.New research shows that clock-based worles hinder morale(士气)and creativity.
Clock-timers organize their day by blocks of minutes and hours.For example：a meeting from 9 a．m.to 10 a．m.，research from 10 a．m.to noon，etc.On the other hand，task-timers have a list of things they want to accomplish.They work down the list；each task starts when the previous task is completed.It is said that all of us employ a mix of both these types of planning.
What，then，are the effects of thinking about time in these different ways？Does one mas more productive？Better at the tasks at hand？Happier? In experiments conducted by Tamar Avnet and Anne-Laure Sellier，they had participants organize different activities—from project planning，holiday shopping，to yoga—by time or to-do list to measure how they performed under “clock time” vs.“task time”．They found clock-timers to be more efficient but less happy because they felt little control over their lives.Task-timers are happier and more creative，but less productive.They tend to enjoy the moment when something good is happening，and seize opportunities that come up.
The researchers argue that task-based organizing tends to be undervalued and under-supported in business culture.Smart companies，they believe，will try to bake more task-based planning into their strategies.
This might be a small change to the way we view work and the office，but the researchers argue that it challenges a widespread characteristic of the economy：work organized by clock time.While most people will still probably need，and be，to some extent，clock-timers，task-based timing should be used when they are performing a job that requires more creativity.It'll make those tasks easier，and the task-doers will be happier.
1．What is the way people often do their work according to the author?
A．They give priority to the most urgent task on hand.
B．They set a time limit for each specific task.
C．They combine clock-based and task-based planning.
D．They accomplish their tasks one by one.
2．What did the researchers find in their experiments on clock-timers?
A．They tend to be more productive.
B．They seize opportunities as they come up.
C．They always get their work done in time.
D．They have more control over their lives.
3．What is the researchers' opinion about today's business culture?
A．It does not support the strategies adopted by smart companies.
B．It attaches more importance to work efficiency than to workers' lives.
C．It aims to bring employees' potential and creativity into full play.
D．It does not lay enough emphasis on task-based practice.
4．From the passage，we can conclude that ________.
A．it is important to keep a balance between work and life
B．task-based timing is preferred for doing creative work
C．performing creative jobs tends to make workers happier
D．a scientific standard should be adopted in job evaluation
【难句分析】While most people will still probably need，and be，to some extent，clock-timers，task-based timing should be used when they are performing a job that requires more creativity.
分析：本句中While引导让步状语从句，意思是“虽然”，相当于although；when they are performing a job是when引导的时间状语从句；that requires more creativity是一个定语从句，先行词是a job。
1．C 考查细节理解。根据第三段中的“It is said that all of us employ a mix of both these types of planning”可知，人们采用了这两种方式的复合型工作方式，因此选项C“他们把时钟型和任务型的计划结合起来”是正确的。选项A、B和D的信息在文中无处可寻，所以都是错误的。give priority to...意为“给……以优先考虑”；on hand意为“在手边”；set a time limit for...意为“给……设定时限”。
2．A 考查细节理解。根据第四段中的“They found clock-timers to be more efficient but less happy because they felt little control over their lives.Task-timers are happier and more creative，but less productive”可知，采用时钟计时型工作方式的人效率更高，采用任务计时型工作方式的人更开心，但是效率较低。所以选A。