八年级英语基础知识归纳

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约6210字。

  1.下列情况用延续性动词 ①for+一段时间
  ② since+过去的时间
  延续性动词的现在完成时  since  短暂性动词的一般过去时
  ③ how long
  2. have/ has gone to 表示去了还没有回      where
  have/ has been to 表示去了回来了  去过 + 词数(how many times,  twice…)
  have/has been in/at  since…  for…..   how long
  3. how long多长时间  for+一段时间   
  since+时间点
  how soon多久以后  (in a weentil next week)
  how often多久一次  (once a year/ every day,often, never, every other day)
  when      (无现在完成时not until)
  how many/how much  ( none)
  how far     多远
  five miles
  about 15 minutes’ bus ride
  It takes ten minutes to walk there.
  4.must be表示肯定猜测    肯定是
  can’t be表示否定猜测   不可能是
  may be= can be表示不确定  可能是
  might                 not sure/ certain
  must            肯定      mustn’t   禁止  
  should          应该
  can               能够
  may/might  可能      not sure/certain
  5.去某地度假 go to sp. for a/ the/ one’s holiday
  去度假 go on holiday---be on holiday
  6.①过去常常做某事
  used to do sth.---didn’t use to do sth.
  Did sb. use to do sth.
  过去曾经有 There used to be +n.
  ②习惯于某事 be/get used to sth.
  习惯这儿的生活be/get used to life here
  习惯于做某事be/get used to doing sth.
  7. It is/ has been +一段时间 since …..
  It will be +一段时间 before…..
  can be/ could be/ must be/ was…
  8.去北京出差(去了还没回)
  have/has gone to Beijing on business
  去北京出差(去了已经回)
  have/has been to Beijing on business
  在北京出差  be in Beijing on business
  出国 (去了还没回)have/ has gone abroad
  出国(去了已经回) have/ has been abroad
  在国外      be abroad
  9.a little/ a bit/ a little bit + adj.
  a little/ a bit of + n.
  10.①使某人/某物… make sb./sth.+ adj.
  使我很开心 make me happy
  使教室整洁make the classroom tidy
  ②使做某事… make it + adj. to do sth.
  使进出城更加便利
  make it even easier to travel to and from the city
  11. see sb do sth  已经、经常, often, 全过程
  短暂动词(happen)
  see sb doing sth 正在,片段 
  when, at 8:00, at that time
  12.nothing 表示物      what
  nobody/no one 表示人  who
  none表示数量  how many/ how much
  我们中没有人 none of us
  我们中每个人 every  one of us
  13.the number of…  …的数量 单数
  ①The number of the students is big/large/small.
  ②The number of the students in Class 1 is larger than that of those in Class 2.
  a number of…  许多…= a lot of…复
  14.①find(发现) sth./sb.+adj.
  发现这道题很简单
  find the problem easy
  发现狗死了
  find the dog dead---be found dead
  ②find that+句子(主语+谓语动词)
  He found that the door was closed.
  He found the door closed
  (that) the door was closed.
  ③find(找到)…adv.
  find the lost cat easily
  ②find
  make
  think    it +adj. + to do sth.
  feel
  ◆ make/feel it+adj.+to do sth.
  ◆ find /think it is +adj.+to do sth.
  found/thought it+adj.+to do sth.
  found /thought it was +adj.+to do sth.
  15.①little  几乎没有  否定
  a little 一点   肯定
  few   几乎没有  否定
  a few 一些  肯定
  固定用法  very little/few
  only a little/a few
  ②little   少的 + 不n.  little bread
  小的+可n.  a little cat
  so little+不n.      这么少
  such little+可n.复   这么小
  such a little+可n.单
  e.g. so little education 这么少的教育
  such little sheep  这么小的绵羊
  such a little mistake 这么小的错误
  16.not only A but (also) B 不仅A而且B
  both A and B  A和B两者都
  neither A nor B   A和B两者都不
  either A or B  要么A要么B
  A together with B    A和B 
  A along with B   A和B
  A as well as B   A和B
  A except B  A除了B
  A but B 
  the police 复数
  the Green family=the Greens 复数
  the couple 夫妇 复数
  James   单数
  A or B  A或B     not A but B不是A就是B
  17.all   三者或三者以上都  复数
  none  三者或三者以上都不 单数或复数
  both  两者都  复数
  neither  两者都不 单数
  either  两者中任何一个 单数
  any   三者或三者以上任何一个  单数
  every   每一个   单数
  each   每一个   单数
  half   两者中的一半
  18.再两个苹果 two more apples
  another two apples
  再一个苹果 one more apple
  another apple
  再百分之四 four more percent
  another four percent
  再一些 some more +可复数/ 不n.
  再许多much more + 不n.  
  much more water
  many more +可复数   
  many more people
  19.some用在肯定句中
  any用在否定和一般疑问句中
  如果一般疑问句表示请求或建议用some
  肯定句中用any表示任何(一个)
  something 某事
  anything 任何事
  nothing 没什么事
  everything 一切
  20.①when什么时候+各种时态
  when当…时候 主将从现、主过从过
  when to do sth.什么时候做某事
  when doing sth.当做某事
  ②if 如果+一现    主将从现  
  if是否+各种时态        
  if…any
  ③since自从+短暂一过
  since既然、由于+各种时态
  21.①too much+不n.  too much milk
  ②v.+too much  
  eat too much   worch
  ③much too+ adj./adv. 
  much too fat
  ④too many+可n. 复 
  too many stomachs
  If too much is eaten (eat)
  I wonder how much heavier (heavy) I’m getting.
  22.  sleep---slept---slept 
  sleepy/ asleep
  feel sleepy  (felt  felt)
  fall asleep   (fell  fallen) 
  be asleep
  23.结婚   A marry B
  A get/be married to B
  A and B get married
  She married the man.
  She got married to the man.
  She and the man got married.
  She didn’t know what kind of man she married/
  got married to.
  24.with+① 介词短语
  The teacher came into the room with a smile on her face.
  ② adj.
  He likes to sleep with the windows open/closed.
  ③ doing(表示主动)
  He fell asleep with a book lying open on his knees.
  25.百/千
  two/several hundred/thousand trees
  (many) hundreds/thousands of trees
  two hundred/thousand of the trees
  two hundred/thousand of them
  26.on ① 日期      on June 9th
  ③ day      on Sunday
  ② 天气      on a cold morning
  in    月份、年、季节、一天中的一部分
  on the morning of October 2nd
  in the morning on October 2nd
  27.the third…   第三…    (强调是第三个)
  a third…       又一、再一… 
  After eating two apples, he ate ________________.
  I have seen this film three times and I want to see it ____
  28.祈使句回答:
  --Don’t do sth.   --OK/Sorry/No, I won’t.
  --Do sth.  --OK/Yes, I will.
  29.---Do you mind my opening the window?
  ---______________. It’s too hot.
  ---Are you sure you don’t mind my opening the window?
  ---______________. It’s too hot.
  (---Are you sure you’ve got everything ready?
  ---_______________, though I’ve checked everything.
  A. I’m afraid so. B. Yes, I’m sure
  C. Sorry, I hope not.  D. I’m afraid not.)
  30.home/here/there/where 前不加介词
  回家/去那儿  go home/there
  去暖和的地方 go somewhere warm
  没地方去/住  have nowhere to go/live
  go somewhere warm/ relaxing

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