贵州省铜仁市第一中学2017届高考英语复习素材:如何做好短文改错

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贵州省铜仁市第一中学2017届高考英语复习素材_如何做好短文改错
贵州省铜仁市第一中学2017届高考英语复习素材_如何做好短文改错.doc
贵州省铜仁市第一中学2017届高考英语复习素材_状语从句.doc
  如何做好短文改错
  高考解题技巧三
  在全国高考中,不管是含听力题还是不含听力题,均有短文改错。在含听力题中分值为10分,在不含听力题中分值为15分。一般情况下,是一篇100词左右的短文,分为10行,每行10个词左右。此题考查学生通过三年的学习后,对英语的应用能力和对错误的识别能力。既要求学生有足够的词汇量、句法知识、词法知识,又要求学生有较为扎实的语法知识。所以,很多学生都把此题看作难题,做得了多少算多少。为了帮助同学们做好此题,下面我们讲讲如何做好短文改错题。
  首先,用2分钟仔细阅读全文,着重查看文章的上下文逻辑是否一致,人称指代是否一致,时态是否一致,文章读起来句子是否完整,通顺,等等。学生读完第一遍必须对上述问题有一个大致的印象。
  其次,再用2分钟仔细阅读全文,着重看每一个句子,加深对上下文逻辑是否一致、人称指代是否一致、时态是否一致、文章读起来句子是否完整、通顺等问题的印象。
  最后,用6分钟再次阅读全文,着重看每一行,针对上下文逻辑是否一致,人称指代是否一致,时态是否一致,文章读起来句子是否完整,通顺等问题进行改错。
  也就是说,短文改错的做题步骤为三部曲,即:段——句——行。不要一拿起文章就开始改。
  改错的时候又如何去做呢?请同学们记住十个字,也就是我们所说的短文改错“十字要诀”:完整——多少——一致——词形——用词。
  所谓“完整”,是指句子中是否缺少主语、谓语或宾语;是否多余主语、谓语或宾语;是否多出连接词或从句少连接词,从而使句子不完整。
  例如:Mary lost the game made her classmates disappointed.主语从句作主语,句意完整,语法结构完整,应该用that作连词,且不能省略。所以应在句首加That.再如:People who often drop on him at his house every weekend.这是一个简单句,who多余,应该去掉。
  所谓“多少”是指句子中的某些固定搭配是否少介词、冠词;或者是否多出介词或冠词;简单句是否多出连词,而并列句、复合句是否又少了连词等等。
  例如:A great many of people were killed in the Wenchuan earthquake. a great many 不带of, of多余,应去掉。又如:As a child, he showed great interest
  chemistry. have/find/take/show interest in sth 为固定搭配,句中显然少了介词in,应该在chemistry前加in.
  所谓“一致”是指上下文逻辑是否一致;时态是否一致;人称指代是否一致;人称和数是否一致;主谓是否一致。
  如:In our school students are complaining about good food in the dining-room.很显然,学生只能因为食物差而抱怨,不可能因伙食好而抱怨。这是逻辑错误,应该把good 改为bad .又如:She has been deaf for years. So she has to to turn up her radio to the top when she listens to music. When she gave a party, he doesn’t have to invite the rest of the street.从上下文分析,时态不一致,gave 应改为gives;人称指代不一致,he 应改为she.
  所谓“词形”是指各种词性的使用是否正确。如:名词单复数;人称代词的主宾格;反身代词;指示代词;该用形容词还是副词,该用什么级;动词该用原形,还是带to,还是过去式、过去分词,还是ing形式;是用基数词还是序数词等等。
  例如:Two hundreds and forty students attended the lecture. Hundreds应该去掉s, 与基数词连用时,dozen/score/hundred/thousand 等等均不加s. They are strong against me going there. Strong是形容词,不能修饰介词短语,应该改为副词strongly;.再如:They can’t imagine so young a child live alone. imagine 后面应该接ing形式,所以,live应改为living.
  所谓“用词”是指该用此词而用成彼词。如:that用成which,some用成状语从句
  1、时间状语从句
  a、连词:when/while/as/since/before/after/till/until/as soon as/directly/immediately/instantly/the moment/the minute/the second/ scarcely/when/hardly  when/ no sooner than/the first time/once
  b、when/as/while的区别
  when既可以指时间点,也可以指时间段。 while只能指时间段,强调两个动作同时发生。 as也只能指时间段,强调一边。。。。一边。。
  When I was in Guiyang,I made many friends.
  When I saw him, he was talking to a pretty girl.
  He was reading the newspaper while I was watching news on TV.
  They sang happily as they walked along the path.
  was about to +V原形后面只能用when
  She was about to lie down when the telephone rang.
  We were about to give up when help came.
  when还可表示让步,意思是既然
  You needn’t buy a TV when you have a computer.
  Why do you want to find a job when you already have one ?
  While可以表示转折对比,意思是然而
  She’s young and beautiful while her husband  is old and ugly.
  In winter it is warm in the south while it is cold in the north.
  while还可表示让步,意思是尽管
  While she is beautiful ,she behaves rudely.
  While I dislike him,I have to agree that he is smart.
  c、before的特殊用法和句型。
  It may/will be/take +一段时间+before从句
  It may not/will not be/take +一段时间+before从句
  It was/took +一段时间+before从句
  It didn’t take/wasn’t +一段时间+before从句
  It may take another month before the project is completed.
  It won’t be long before the results of the examination come out.
  It took three years before the police caught the murderer.
  It wasn’t long before my lost car was found.
  除此以外,before还有以下用法;
  1、表示“先。。。。才。。。”
  2、表示“直到。。。。才。。。”
  3、表示“还来不及。。。。就。。。。”
  4、表示“宁愿。。。。也不愿。。。。”
  He would do lots of experiments before he believed a theory
  The old man fears that he will die before he leaves a will.
  The houses had been burnt to the ground before the firemen arrived at the airport.
  She had fallen into the river before I could pull her.
  She will die before she marries the poor young man.
  d、It is(has been)+一段时间+since从句。
  It’s three years since we last saw each other.
  It had been fifteen years since she left home.
  e、until/till 的用法
  延续性动词表示该动作一直延续到till/until引导的时间才结束。结束性动词要用否定式,表示该动作一直到till/until引导的时间才开始。
  We stayed in the hotel till the police came .
  We didn’t leave the hotel till the police came.
  f、表示“一……就……”的句型
  directly/immediately/instantly/the moment/the minute/the

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