初中英语语法小结

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约14610字。

  初中英语语法小结
  中学英语宾语从句语法讲解
  [宾语从句歌诀]
  宾语从句三姊妹,that,if/whether,wh-/how展风采。
  展风采有三关,引导词、语序、时态在把关。
  主从时态要一致,陈述语序永不变。
  陈述请你选that,疑问需用if/whether连。
  特殊问句作宾从,原来问词不用换。
  三关过后莫得意,人称、标点需注意。
  留意变脸的if/when,从句的简化记心间。
  [歌诀解码]
  一、三姊妹
  宾语从句根据引导词的不同可分为三种类型:
  1. 由that引导的宾语从句。如:
  We knew (that)we should learn from each other.
  2. 由if/whether引导的宾语从句。如:
  Please tell me if/whether you have been to America.
  3. 由who,where,how等连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句。如:
  Can you tell me how I can get to the nearest post office?
  二、三关
  1. 引导词关
  如果从句是陈述句,引导词用that(that在口语或非正式文体中常省略);如果从句是一般疑问句,引导词用if/whether;如果从句是特殊疑问句,引导词用由疑问词转换而来的疑问代词/副词。
  2. 语序关
  ①陈述句变为宾语从句,语序不变,即仍用陈述语序。如:
  He is an honest boy. The teacher said. →The teacher said(that)he was an honest boy.
  ②一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为宾语从句,语序变为陈述语序。如:
  Does he work hard?I wonder.→I wonder if/whether he works hard.
  When did he leave?I don’t know. →I don’t know when he left.
  3. 时态关
  ①如果主句是现在的时态(包括一般现在时和现在完成时),从句的时态可根据实际情况而定。如:
  I have heard(that)he will come back next week.
  ②如果主句是过去的某种时态,那么从句的时态一定要用过去的某种时态(包括一般过去时和过去完成时、过去将来时)。如:
  He said(that)there were no classes yesterday.
  注意:如果宾语从句表述的是客观真理、自然现象等时,不管主句是什么时态,从句都要用一般现在时。如:
  He said that light travels much faster than sound.
  三、人称的变化和标点的使用
  1. 从句的主语如果是第一人称,变为宾语从句则与主句的主语一致;如果是第二人称,则与主句的宾语一致;如果是第三人称,不用变化。(一主、二宾、三不变)如:
  “May I use your knife?”He asked me. →He asked me if he might use my knife.
  “Do you know her telephone number?”He asked me. →He asked me if I know her telephone number.
  He is an honest boy. The teacher said. →The teacher said(that)he was an honest boy.
  “would he come back next week? “Tom asked him→Tom asked him if he would come back next week.
  2. 宾语从句的标点均由主句决定。主句是陈述句,用句号;主句是疑问句,用问号。如:
  Who will give us a talk?I don’t know. →I don’t know who will give us a talk.(who 在从名中担任的是主语,从名的语序不是疑问句的语序)
  Do you know?Where does he live?→Do you know where he lives?
  四、两副面孔
  if和when既能引导状语从句,又能引导宾语从句。因此,遇到它们就要认真分析一下,它们究竟属于“两副面孔”的哪一副。如:
  If it rains tomorrow,I won’t come.(条件状语从句)假如明天下雨,我就不来了。
  I don’t know if it will rain tomorrow. (宾语从句)  我不知道明天是否下雨。
  五、从句的简化
  1. 当主句谓语动词是find,see,watch,hear等感官动词时,从句常简化为“宾语+宾补”结构,宾补为不带to的不定式或V-ing形式。如:
  She found that the wallet lay/was lying on the ground. →She found the wallet lie/lying on the ground.
  2. 当主句谓语动词是hope,wish,decide,forget,plan,agree等,且主句主语与从句主语相同时,从句可简化为不定式结构。如:
  She agreed that she could help me with my maths. →She agreed to help me with my maths.
  3. 在连接代词/副词引导的宾语从句中,当从句主语与主句主语或间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“连接代词/副词+不定式”结构。如:
  Can you tell me how I can get to the station?→Can you tell me how to get to the station?
  Can you tell him when he can get to the station?→Can you tell him when to

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